Forum Multimedia Publishing follows the guidelines of the ICMJE. Authorship credit should be based on the following four criteria:
- Substantial contributions to the conception or design of the work; or the acquisition, analysis, or interpretation of data for the work; AND
- Drafting the work or reviewing it critically for important intellectual content; AND
- Final approval of the version to be published; AND
- Agreement to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
In addition to being accountable for the parts of the work done, an author should be able to identify which co-authors are responsible for specific other parts of the work. In addition, authors should have confidence in the integrity of the contributions of their co-authors.
All those designated as authors should meet all four criteria for authorship, and all who meet the four criteria should be identified as authors. Those who do not meet all four criteria should be acknowledged, with their permission. We recommend using CRediT to specify author and contributor roles.
Y.P. contributed to the design of this work. D.Y.K. contributed to the interpretation of data. G.Y.P. and L.Y. analyzed the data. G.Y.P. and D.Y.K. drafted the work. G.Y.P. and L.Y. revised critically for important intellectual content. All authors read and approved the final manuscript. All authors agree to be accountable for all aspects of the work in ensuring that questions related to the accuracy or integrity of any part of the work are appropriately investigated and resolved.
All contributors who meet fewer than all four of the above criteria for authorship should be listed in the ‘Acknowledgment’ section, with their permission. The ICMJE gave some examples of activities which alone do not qualify someone for authorship: obtaining funding; general supervision of the research team or general administrative support; and writing assistance, technical editing, language editing, and proofreading.
Because acknowledgment may imply endorsement by acknowledged individuals of a study’s data and conclusions, authors have the responsibility to get written approval from persons named in the acknowledgment section.
Authors are responsible for ensuring that the author list is complete and accurate when submitting their manuscript. If there is any change in authorship and/or contributorship after the initial submission, approval from all authors must be presented. This applies to additions, deletions, changes of order to the authors, changes to corresponding authorship, or contributions being attributed differently. Any change must be raised to the attention of the editorial office and the submitting author must provide a clear explanation for the change. The Editor may confirm with any of the authors/contributors that they have agreed to any change.
Requests to change authors (for example, adding or removing authors, author names, or contributor changes) must be accompanied by Forum Multimedia Publishing Change of Authorship Form signed by all authors stating that they agree to the changes. New authors must also confirm that they fully meet the journal authorship requirements, any change in authorship after revision should be confirmed by the corresponding author's institution, and no person who was not an author at the time of initial submission may become a new first or corresponding author. In addition, Forum Multimedia Publishing will individually inform anyone who is added to or removed from the author list.
Changes should not be made to the author list after acceptance of a manuscript for publication. Authors may ask to make changes post-acceptance, but such requests will only be approved in exceptional circumstances and at the discretion of the Editor-in-Chief.
Forum Multimedia Publishing strongly encourages authors to follow the ICMJE recommendation on artificial intelligence (AI). When submitting a manuscript, authors should disclose whether they used AI assistive technology (e.g., large-scale language models [LLMs], chatbots, machine learning, or image creators) in the production of the submitted work. Authors who use this technology should describe how they used it in their cover letters to editors and in the Methods or Acknowledgments section of manuscripts. Since AI assistive technology does not qualify for authorship, authors should not list AI and AI-assisted technologies as authors or co-authors. In addition, authors should not only be able to assert that their papers are free of plagiarism (including due to AI-generated text and images), but authors must also be responsible for the integrity of the content generated by these tools.